Raw wool is processed into yarn by either one of two main processing routes, namely the worsted system or the woollen system. Yarn spun by the worsted process has a characteristic smooth, even appearance.
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The purpose “CARDING” is to open up the fibres, which have been tangled during scouring and carbonizing, and to lay the fibres parallel with each other.
“GILLING” consists of pulling several wool slivers together through a series of coarse to the combs, which mix the Fibres and align them parallel to one another.
“COMBING” removes any short and broken fibres from the sliver as well as any vegetable impurities remaining and ensures that the longer fibres are straight and parallel. The wool is then delivered in a sliver of level and uniform thickness, which is wound into balls called 'Tops'.
“DRAWING” consists of passing the top through rollers and reducing the slivers to a suitable weight or thickness ready for spinning. The process is repeated several times, reducing the diameter of the top at each operation. In its reduced form the sliver is called a roving.
“SPINNING” is extension of the drawing process & consists of two main operations.
Although most “DYEING” of wool takes place on wool top and scoured wool, dyeing can also be carried out on wool yarns or wool fabrics.